Recording and storing

Beta Site
A site where beta versions are delivered to be tested.

Beta Test
A test for beta versions.

Beta Version
The final trial version before the first commercial launch. The initial trial version before beta is called alpha version

To write or record data onto CD-R.

CD-Rewritable(CD-RW) media
Media that incorporates a recording layer capable of multiple overwriting. Its standards are determined according to the Orange Book Part III.

Close Session
The writing process of the Lead-in and Lead-out at the end of the recording process is called "Close Session" or "Fix." A CD that has not undergone Close Session cannot be read by ordinary CD-ROM drives.

Debug, meaning getting rid of insect pests originally, means rectifying errors and defects in programs in this case.

DTP (: Abbreviation for Desk Top Publishing)
Systems using PC to edit, print and process documents, images and others.

Electronic Book
The Electronic Book is a system in which characters, graphics and sound are written onto an 8cm CD. This is mainly used for dictionaries or information databases. The Electronic Book is based on the "Electronic Book Standard," by which the data formats and search methods have been established. Titles produced under Electronic Book standards can be utilized with the same user interface.

Small pits are formed mechanically during the molding process by the mold.

Enhanced CD
Because the ordinary CD player used for playing back music is not capable of multi-session operation, when multi-session formatted discs are played back in such players, they will recognize and play the first session, but cannot play the second. Making use of this characteristic, this type of CD-ROM format is structured to record the first session as an audio track and the second as a data track. When it is played back by a CD player, because the first session is an audio track, the disc will be identified as a conventional audio CD disc. When it is played back by a CD-ROM drive with a device driver that supports Enhanced CD, it is identified as a CD-ROM disc. On the other hand, with a device driver that does not support Enhanced CD, it is identified as an audio CD. This is because device drivers that are not configured for Enhanced CD recognize the difference between CD-ROM and Audio CD at the first track, so they recognize Enhanced CD, whose first track is audio, as an ordinary Audio CD.
CD PLUS and CD EXTRA can be categorized into this format as well.

When conducting multi session recording, this means the closing of a session (fixing) by indicating the halting of writing so as to prevent the addition of any more sessions.

Same as to close a session.

Green Book
A book of CD Interactive (CD-I) standards published by Philips and Sony in 1986.

Guide tracks for writing onto optical CD discs. Marks are recorded on the tracks with a laser beam. The grooves are formed by the molding process. Grooves on CD-R are in a 1.6μm pitch and in a spiral, like on CD.

Hybrid Type CD-ROM
A CD-ROM disc storing "two different platforms of softwares" for Windows and Macintosh etc.

Interference Condition
Pit in a CD disc reflect back less laser light than land. As a result, an optical head mounted in a CD player or CD-ROM drive recognizes the pit as being darker than the land. Thus the optical head reads out the data from the difference in the darker and lighter reflections. The reflections from the pit and land surfaces interfere with each other, making the pit appear much darker than the simple difference predicts. Darkness of the pits can be optically adjusted to the darkest, called "Interference Condition." Although CD-R discs have a slightly different pit structure from CD's, marks in CD-R are so designed so as to have the same darkness as the pits in CD, utilizing this interference condition.

In CD, flat portions outside pits are called "land." In CD-R, there are two kinds of lands now being combined. Lands of the first kind are portions between pregrooves. Lands of the second kind are unrecorded pregroove portions between recorded marks. In CD, these two types exist on the same plane and are identical while in CD-R, they are not identical.

A component of a session. One session is composed of Lead-in, Program Area and Lead-out. It contains the TOC (Table of Contents). Lead-in defines the beginning of a session.

A component of a session. One session is composed of Lead-in, Program Area and Lead-out. The Lead-out defines the end of a session

Logical Erase
To write logical information that indicates an erased condition.

Multi Session
This is a recording method that enables adding of data using the Track-At-Once method. Conventional CDs begin at a CD control area called the Lead-in and end at an area called Lead-out. A Multi Session CD is a CD having multiple sessions, with each segment from Lead-in to Lead-out regarded as a single session. When writing is performed for each session, a control area (for Lead-in and Lead-out) of approximately 2 minutes capacity is required. Even if no data is present, the recording of only 30 sessions consumes 63 minutes of media. As a precaution when performing data adding, it is recommended that small capacity writing be avoided. Furthermore, data adding cannot be performed on a disc that has been written using the Disc-At-Once method, or on a disk which has been finalized.

As opposed to a reflectivity of 0.7 or greater for CDs and CD-Rs, the reflectivity of a CD-RW is around 0.2. Thus, CD-ROM or CD players, which are designed to anticipate a reflectivity of 0.7 or greater, cannot play back a CD-RW disc. However, by the addition of an AGC (Automatic Gain Control) circuit, the ratio of amplification can be switched to enable playback of CD-RWs. CD/DVD drives that are able to play back CD-RWs and packet-written discs are referred to has having "MultiRead" compatibility, and compatible equipment bears a logo to identify it as such.

MO (Abbreviation for Magneto-Optical Disk)
MO stands for magneto-optical disk, and means disks and systems that record optically and magnetically, and vead optically. The MO disk is erasable and rewritable, but is not interchangeable with existing CD discs.

Mode 1
Mode 1 is one of the CD-ROM recording formats. Another format is Mode 2. Both Mode 1 and Mode 2 are described in CD-ROM standards of the Yellow Book. CD formats originally have a very powerful double error-correction function, however, to further increase the reliability of the data being read out, a third error-correction function, CRC has been introduced in the Yellow Book. Mode 1 has this CRC function added, while Mode 2 does not. In other words, Mode 2 has about 14% more capacity than Mode 1, due to the lack of the CRC. CD-ROMs generally use Mode 1, while data such as that for moving pictures requiring higher capacity rather than reinforced error-correction, may require Mode 2.

When recording on a disc, it is necessary to adjust the recording laser power to take into account differences in recording conditions, such as recording sensitivity of the recording layer, temperature, and fluctuations in laser wavelength. This process, called OPC, can write test data with different recording power and read them back at the PCA (Power Calibration Area) on the very inside of the disc. Then based on an evaluation standard it determines the optimum power.

Orange Book
The Orange Book is a physical format of recordable CD announced in 1989 by Philips and Sony. The Orange Book describes CD-MO in part-I and CD-R in part-II. Later on part-II was updated. In 1994, version-II was announced for the CD-ROM and its double speed type. In 1996, the standards for phase change optical disc, rewritable CD (CD-RW) was added as part-III.

Organic Dye
A category of materials used for a recording layer in CD-R. Such materials are classified into two groups, cyanine and phthalocyanine.

Phase Change Optical Disc
Optical recording discs and systems that use a laser beam to convert the crystalline recording layer into a sequence of amorphous marks. The optical difference between the crystalline and amorphous states enables data recording. Not interchangeable with existing CD.

Phase Change Recording
Refers to data recording that makes use of the differences in reflectance between crystalline and amorphous states. The laser beam creates a non-crystalline (amorphous) state through rapid heating and cooling, and which becomes crystalline through slow heating and cooling. The reflectance is high for crystalline and low for amorphous.

Photo CD
A CD format and system devised by Eastman Kodak to record digitized photograph data.

Physical Erase
To erase the entire disc by crystallizing it with constant erase power.

At first, "master" indicates the "glass master" for the CD production in the factory. On the other hand, "pre-master" indicates a CD for making these glass masters. Generally a recorded CD-R can be used for the pre-master.

Program Area
A component of a session. One session is composed of Lead-in, Program Area and Lead-out. The Program Area contains the music data or other data.

Red Book
A book setting the standards for the Compact Disc physical format and audio recording methods, published by Philips and Sony in 1981.

Running OPC
Only prior to recording, the OPC in some cases is not able to reproduce recording power due to fluctuations in the laser wavelength, surface fluctuations of disc recording sensitivity or other causes. To deal with this, the recording waveform is monitored during recording, and using this method the recording power is corrected to give ideal conditions.

SCSI Board (: Small Computer System Interface Board)
The SCSI board is required in a computer to be connected to a CD-R recorder with a suitable matching interface.

When writing of data by the Track-At-Once method, the beginning and end of any subsequent data includes additional control data in the form of a 60-second Lead-in and 30-second Lead-out. This combination of data in the form of Lead-in/Data/Lead-out is called a "Session." A disc with multiple sessions is referred to as a Multi-session disc.

Contents of the Lead-in, this contains the addresses of all the tracks on the CD.

A unit of recording on the CD. In the case of audio data, this would constitute one musical entry. A CD can have a maximum of 99 tracks. Each track can be divided into 99 indexes. While the track indicates the audio entry, the index points to a specific position in the audio entry.

Video CD
A CD-ROM storing MPEG-1-compressed moving pictures, still pictures, audio sounds etc.

White Book
The CD-I Bridge format specified in the White Book is a standard for entering CD-I data onto CD-ROM XA discs. A CD-I Bridge disc is a special type of CD-ROM XA disc that satisfies both CD-ROM XA and CD-I standards, allowing it to be played back in both types of players. It can be played back by personal computers, CD-I players, Electronic Books and other products equipped with compatible device drivers.

The tracks in the CD-R and CD-RW media wobble slightly in the direction of their radius. This is called wobbling. The drive uses this wobble signal to read positional data within the blank disc.

WORM (Abbreviation for Write Once Read Many times)
An optical disc that allows only one-time writing. CD-R is a kind of WORM.

Yellow Book
A book of CD-ROM standards published by Philips and Sony in 1985.